Contribution to the malacofauna of the north coast of Egypt

Reham Fathey Ali, e-mail: reham.ali@agr.cu.edu.eg

Department of Zoology and Agricultural Nematology, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt
Abstract

The survey of land snails of the North Coast of Egypt, still insufficiently known and not studied since the 1950s, is presented. The fauna of the region is relatively species-rich. Thirteen land snail species of four families are recorded: Helicidae (Theba pisana (O. F. Müller), Eremina desertorum desertorum (Forskål), E. d. irregularis (Férussac), E. d. zitteli Boettger, Eobania vermiculata (O. F. Müller), Helix pronuba Westerlund et Blanc), Geomitridae (Xeropicta krynickii (Krynicki), Xerocrassa tuberculosa (Conrad), X. tanousi (Westerlund), Xerocrassa sp., Cochlicella acuta (O. F. Müller)), Subulinidae (Rumina saharica Pallary) and Sphincterochilidae (Sphincterochila sp.). This paper is a preliminary review aimed at throwing some light on the malacofauna of the Mediterranean region in the context of the biodiversity studies in Egypt.

Key words
Egypt; Mediterranean Coast; land snails

 

Abbes I., Nouira S., Neubert E. 2011. Sphincterochilidae from Tunisia, with a note on the subgenus Rima Pallary, 1910 (Gastropoda, Pulmonata). Zookeys 151: 1–15. https://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.151.2264Albano P. G., Bassi V., D’Occhio P., Strazzari G., Succetti F., Sabelli B. 2013. Land molluscs of forested habitats of four “Natura 2000” sites in Emilia-Romagna, with notes on the date of settlement of the alien species Bulgarica denticulata. Boll. Malacol. 49: 81–100.Ali R. F., Neiber M. T., Walther F., Hausdorf B. 2016. Morphological and genetic differentiation of Eremina desertorum (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Helicidae) in Egypt. Zool. Scr. 45: 48–61. https://doi.org/10.1111/zsc.12134Avidov Z., Harpaz I. 1969. Plant pests in Israel. Israel Universities Press, Jerusalem. Baker G. H. 1986. The biology and control of white snails (Mollusca: Helicidae), introduced pests in Australia. Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, Australia, Division of Entomology Technical Paper No. 25: 1–31.Baker G. H. 2002. Helicidae and Hygromiidae as pests in cereal crops and pastures in Southern Australia. In: Barker G. M. (ed.). Molluscs as Crop Pests. CAB International, Wallingford & New York, pp. 193–215. https://doi.org/10.1079/9780851993201.0193Biggs H. E. J. 1937. Mollusca of the Iranian Plateau. J. Conchol. 20: 342–350.Biggs H. E. J. 1959. A contribution to the study of the genus Eremina Pfeiffer, 1885. J. Conchol. 24: 332–342.Blume W. 1952. Ein neuer Fundort für zwei ägyptische Landschnecken. Arch. Molluskenkd. 81: 109–111.Boettger O. 1899. Eine neue Eremia aus der Oase Siuah. Nachrbl. Dtsch. Malakozool. Ges. 31: 158–160.Bourguignat M. J. R. 1864. Malacologie de l’Algérie. Oxford University Press, Paris.Brandt R. A. 1959. Die Helicellinae der Cyrenaika. Arch. Molluskenkd. 88: 81–158.Bucciarelli I. 1961. La raccolta dei Coleotteri ipogei. L’informatore del giovane entomologo, Suppl. Boll. Soc. Entomol. Ital. 9–10: 37–40.Cameron R. 2008. Land snails in the British Isles. Field Studies Council. AIDGAP, Pemberley Publications, Iver.Carr R. 2002. Geographical variation of the taxa in the genus Rumina (Gastropoda: Subulinidae) from the Mediterranean region. J. Conchol. 37: 569–577.Cook L. M. 1998. A two-stage model for Cepaea polymorphism. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London B 353: 1577–1593. https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.1998.0311Cowie R. H. 1990. Climatic selection on body colour in the land snail Theba pisana (Pulmonata: Helicidae). Heredity 65: 123–126. https://doi.org/10.1038/hdy.1990.78De Mattia W., Pešić V. 2014. Xeropicta (Gastropoda, Hygromiidae) goes west: the first record of X. ­krynickii (Krynicki, 1833) for Montenegro, with a description of its shell and genital morphology, and an additional record of X. derbentina (Krynicki, 1836) for Italy. Ecol. Mont. 1: 193–200.De Smet W. H., Van Rompu E. A. 1989. Survey of the distribution and shell polymorphism of Cochlicella acuta (Müller, 1774) and Theba pisana (Müller, 1774) (Pulmonata, Helicidae) along the Belgian coastal dune area. In: Wouters K., Baert L. (eds). Invertebraten van BelgiB = Invertertit de Belgique, Verhandelingen van het Symposium “Invertebraten van BelgiB” / Comptes rendus du Symposium “Invertmposi de Belgique”. Brussel, 25–26 November 1988: 119–124.Fahmy O. G. 1949. Oogenesis in the desert snail Eremina desertorum with special reference to vitellogenesis. Q. J. Microsc. Sci. 90: 159–181.Forcart L. 1975. Die Cochlicellinae und Helicellinae von Palästina und Sinai. Arch. Molluskenkd. 106: 123–189.Godan D. 1983. Pest slugs and snails, biology and control. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. Hausdorf B., Hennig C. 2005. The influence of recent geography, palaeogeography and climate on the composition of the fauna of the central Aegean Islands. Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 84: 785–795. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8312.2005.00467.xHeller J. 2009. Land snails of the land of Israel. Natural history and field guide. Pensoft, Sofia – Moscow.Johnson M. S. 1980. Association of shell banding and habitat in a colony of a land snail Theba pisana. Heredity 45: 7–14. https://doi.org/10.1038/hdy.1980.46Johnson M. S. 1981. Effects of migration and habitat choice on shell banding frequencies in Theba pisana at a habitat boundary. Heredity 47: 121–134. https://doi.org/10.1038/hdy.1981.65Kaltenbach H. 1934. Die individuelle, ökologische und geographische Variabilität der Wüstenschnecken Eremina desertorum, hasselquisti und zitteli. Arch. Naturgesch. N. F. 3: 383–404.Kaltenbach H. 1942. Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Wüstenschnecken Eremina desertorum, kobelti und hasselquisti mit ihren individuellen, ökologischen und geographischen Rassen. Arch. Naturgesch. N. F. 11: 350–386.Kaltenbach H. 1950a. Ergebnisse zoologisch-geologischer Sammelreisen in NO-Afrika 2: Helix nucula, Helix aspersa und Eobania vermiculata. Arch. Molluskenkd. 79: 55–66.Kaltenbach H. 1950b. Ergebnisse zoologisch-geologischer Sammelreisen in NO-Afrika. 3. Die Gattung Sphincterochila Ancey. Arch. Molluskenkd. 79: 155–166.Kerney M. P., Cameron R. A. D. 1979. A field guide to the land snails of Britain and North-west Europe. Collins, London.Korábek O., Petrusek A., Neubert E., Juřičková L. 2015. Molecular phylogeny of the genus Helix (Pulmonata: Helicidae). Zool. Scr. 44: 263–280. https://doi.org/10.1111/zsc.12101Luchtel D. L., Deyrup-Olsen I. 2001. Body wall form and function. In: Barker G. M. (ed.). The biology of terrestrial molluscs. CABI Publishing, Oxon, p. 159. https://doi.org/10.1079/9780851993188.0147Martens E. 1865. Uebersicht der Land- und Süsswasser-Mollusken des Nil-Gebietes. Malakozool. Bl. 12: 177–207.Mienis H. K. 1973. Eobania vermiculata (Müller) in Israel (Gastropoda, Helicidae) Argamon. Israel J. Malacol. 4: 9–10.Mienis H. K. 2008. Does Rumina saharica Pallary, 1901 occur in France? MalaCo. 5: 229–230.Mohamed M. I., Ali R. F. 2011. Life cycle and growth rates of the conical snail Cochlicella acuta (Müller, 1774) (Gastropoda: Cochlicellidae). Anim. Biol. J. 2: 171–180.Mohamed M. I., Ali R. F. 2013. Shell measurements and growth rate of the two terrestrial snails Eobania vermiculata (Müller) and Monacha cartusiana (Müller) (Mollusca: Helicidae) under laboratory conditions. Anim. Biol. J. 4: 147–160.Neubert E. 2014. Revision of Helix Linnaeus, 1758 in its east Mediterranean distribution area, with a note on Helix godetiana Kobelt, 1878 (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Helicidae. Contrib. Nat. Hist. 26: 1–200.Neubert E., Korábek O. 2015. Comment on Psonis et al. (2015): ‘Evaluation of the taxonomy of Helix cincta (Muller, 1774) and Helix nucula (Mousson, 1854); insights using mitochondrial DNA sequence data’. J. Nat. Hist. 49: 2257–2263. https://doi.org/10.1080/00222933.2015.1021874Neubert E., Zahair S. A., Waitzbauer W., Al Talafha H. 2015. Annotated checklist of the terrestrial gastropods of Jordan. Arch. Molluskenkd. 144: 169–238. https://doi.org/10.1127/arch.moll/1869-0963/144/169-238Pallary P. 1909. Catalogue de la faune malacologique de l’Egypte. Memoires presentes a l’Institut Egyptien 6: 1–92.Pallary P. 1921. Faune malacologique du Grand Atlas. J. Conchyliol. 66: 187–190.Pallary P. 1924. Supplément à la faune malacologique terrestre et fluviale de l’Égypte. Mém. Inst. Égypt. 7: 23–24 & 46–49.Prévot V., Backeljau T., Jordaens K. 2015. Morphometric evaluation of DNA based cryptic taxa in the terrestrial decollate snail genus Rumina. J. Mollus. Stud. 81: 223–232. https://doi.org/10.1093/mollus/eyu080Reitano A., Liberto F., Giglio S., Grasso R., Spena M. T. 2012. Terrestrial molluscs from the R.N.I. “Grotta Conza” (Palermo, Sicily) (Gastropoda Architaenioglossa Pulmonata). Biodivers. J. 3: 555–570.Rensch B. 1932. Über die Abhängigkeit der Größe, des relativen Gewichtes und der Oberflächenstruktur der Landschnecken von den Umweltsfaktoren. (Ökologische Molluskenstudien 1). Z. Morph. Ökol. Tiere 25: 757–807.Scheil A. E., Cättner U., Köhler Heinz-R. 2012. Colour polymorphism and thermal capacities in Theba pisana (O. F. Müller 1774). J. Therm. Biol. 37: 462–467. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtherbio.2012.03.006Schütt H. 2001. Die türkischen Landschnecken 1758–2000. Acta Biol. Benrodis, Suppl. 4: 1–548.Singer B. S., Mienis H. K. 1993. Rumina decollata an interesting visitor to the coast of Israel. Levantina 76: 5–18.Swart P. L., Barnes B. N., Myburgh A. C. 1976. Pests of table grapes in the Western Cape. Deciduous Fruit Grower 26: 169–195.Tryon G. W. Jr. 1887. Manual of conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol. 3. Helicidae – Vol. I. Conchological Section. Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, pp. 14–15.USDA 2008. New pest response guidelines. Temperate terrestrial gastropods. United States Department of Agriculture, Washington D.C. Welter-Schultes F. W. 2012. European non-marine molluscs, a guide for species identification. Planet Poster Editions, Göttingen.Yildirim M. Z., Gumus U. K. 2004. Edible snails (Terrestrial) of Turkey. Turk. J. Zool. 28: 329–335.

 
References

Abbes I., Nouira S., Neubert E. 2011. Sphincterochilidae from Tunisia, with a note on the subgenus Rima Pallary, 1910 (Gastropoda, Pulmonata). Zookeys 151: 1–15. https://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.151.2264
Albano P. G., Bassi V., D’Occhio P., Strazzari G., Succetti F., Sabelli B. 2013. Land molluscs of forested habitats of four “Natura 2000” sites in Emilia-Romagna, with notes on the date of settlement of the alien species Bulgarica denticulata. Boll. Malacol. 49: 81–100.
Ali R. F., Neiber M. T., Walther F., Hausdorf B. 2016. Morphological and genetic differentiation of Eremina desertorum (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Helicidae) in Egypt. Zool. Scr. 45: 48–61. https://doi.org/10.1111/zsc.12134
Avidov Z., Harpaz I. 1969. Plant pests in Israel. Israel Universities Press, Jerusalem.
Baker G. H. 1986. The biology and control of white snails (Mollusca: Helicidae), introduced pests in Australia. Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, Australia, Division of Entomology Technical Paper No. 25: 1–31.
Baker G. H. 2002. Helicidae and Hygromiidae as pests in cereal crops and pastures in Southern Australia. In: Barker G. M. (ed.). Molluscs as Crop Pests. CAB International, Wallingford & New York, pp. 193–215. https://doi.org/10.1079/9780851993201.0193
Biggs H. E. J. 1937. Mollusca of the Iranian Plateau. J. Conchol. 20: 342–350.
Biggs H. E. J. 1959. A contribution to the study of the genus Eremina Pfeiffer, 1885. J. Conchol. 24: 332–342.
Blume W. 1952. Ein neuer Fundort für zwei ägyptische Landschnecken. Arch. Molluskenkd. 81: 109–111.
Boettger O. 1899. Eine neue Eremia aus der Oase Siuah. Nachrbl. Dtsch. Malakozool. Ges. 31: 158–160.
Bourguignat M. J. R. 1864. Malacologie de l’Algérie. Oxford University Press, Paris.
Brandt R. A. 1959. Die Helicellinae der Cyrenaika. Arch. Molluskenkd. 88: 81–158.
Bucciarelli I. 1961. La raccolta dei Coleotteri ipogei. L’informatore del giovane entomologo, Suppl. Boll. Soc. Entomol. Ital. 9–10: 37–40.
Cameron R. 2008. Land snails in the British Isles. Field Studies Council. AIDGAP, Pemberley Publications, Iver.
Carr R. 2002. Geographical variation of the taxa in the genus Rumina (Gastropoda: Subulinidae) from the Mediterranean region. J. Conchol. 37: 569–577.
Cook L. M. 1998. A two-stage model for Cepaea polymorphism. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London B 353: 1577–1593. https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.1998.0311
Cowie R. H. 1990. Climatic selection on body colour in the land snail Theba pisana (Pulmonata: Helicidae). Heredity 65: 123–126. https://doi.org/10.1038/hdy.1990.78
De Mattia W., Pešić V. 2014. Xeropicta (Gastropoda, Hygromiidae) goes west: the first record of X. ­krynickii (Krynicki, 1833) for Montenegro, with a description of its shell and genital morphology, and an additional record of X. derbentina (Krynicki, 1836) for Italy. Ecol. Mont. 1: 193–200.
De Smet W. H., Van Rompu E. A. 1989. Survey of the distribution and shell polymorphism of Cochlicella acuta (Müller, 1774) and Theba pisana (Müller, 1774) (Pulmonata, Helicidae) along the Belgian coastal dune area. In: Wouters K., Baert L. (eds). Invertebraten van BelgiB = Invertertit de Belgique, Verhandelingen van het Symposium “Invertebraten van BelgiB” / Comptes rendus du Symposium “Invertmposi de Belgique”. Brussel, 25–26 November 1988: 119–124.
Fahmy O. G. 1949. Oogenesis in the desert snail Eremina desertorum with special reference to vitellogenesis. Q. J. Microsc. Sci. 90: 159–181.
Forcart L. 1975. Die Cochlicellinae und Helicellinae von Palästina und Sinai. Arch. Molluskenkd. 106: 123–189.
Godan D. 1983. Pest slugs and snails, biology and control. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
Hausdorf B., Hennig C. 2005. The influence of recent geography, palaeogeography and climate on the composition of the fauna of the central Aegean Islands. Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 84: 785–795. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8312.2005.00467.x
Heller J. 2009. Land snails of the land of Israel. Natural history and field guide. Pensoft, Sofia – Moscow.
Johnson M. S. 1980. Association of shell banding and habitat in a colony of a land snail Theba pisana. Heredity 45: 7–14. https://doi.org/10.1038/hdy.1980.46
Johnson M. S. 1981. Effects of migration and habitat choice on shell banding frequencies in Theba pisana at a habitat boundary. Heredity 47: 121–134. https://doi.org/10.1038/hdy.1981.65
Kaltenbach H. 1934. Die individuelle, ökologische und geographische Variabilität der Wüstenschnecken Eremina desertorum, hasselquisti und zitteli. Arch. Naturgesch. N. F. 3: 383–404.
Kaltenbach H. 1942. Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Wüstenschnecken Eremina desertorum, kobelti und hasselquisti mit ihren individuellen, ökologischen und geographischen Rassen. Arch. Naturgesch. N. F. 11: 350–386.
Kaltenbach H. 1950a. Ergebnisse zoologisch-geologischer Sammelreisen in NO-Afrika 2: Helix nucula, Helix aspersa und Eobania vermiculata. Arch. Molluskenkd. 79: 55–66.
Kaltenbach H. 1950b. Ergebnisse zoologisch-geologischer Sammelreisen in NO-Afrika. 3. Die Gattung Sphincterochila Ancey. Arch. Molluskenkd. 79: 155–166.
Kerney M. P., Cameron R. A. D. 1979. A field guide to the land snails of Britain and North-west Europe. Collins, London.
Korábek O., Petrusek A., Neubert E., Juřičková L. 2015. Molecular phylogeny of the genus Helix (Pulmonata: Helicidae). Zool. Scr. 44: 263–280. https://doi.org/10.1111/zsc.12101
Luchtel D. L., Deyrup-Olsen I. 2001. Body wall form and function. In: Barker G. M. (ed.). The biology of terrestrial molluscs. CABI Publishing, Oxon, p. 159. https://doi.org/10.1079/9780851993188.0147
Martens E. 1865. Uebersicht der Land- und Süsswasser-Mollusken des Nil-Gebietes. Malakozool. Bl. 12: 177–207.
Mienis H. K. 1973. Eobania vermiculata (Müller) in Israel (Gastropoda, Helicidae) Argamon. Israel J. Malacol. 4: 9–10.
Mienis H. K. 2008. Does Rumina saharica Pallary, 1901 occur in France? MalaCo. 5: 229–230.
Mohamed M. I., Ali R. F. 2011. Life cycle and growth rates of the conical snail Cochlicella acuta (Müller, 1774) (Gastropoda: Cochlicellidae). Anim. Biol. J. 2: 171–180.
Mohamed M. I., Ali R. F. 2013. Shell measurements and growth rate of the two terrestrial snails Eobania vermiculata (Müller) and Monacha cartusiana (Müller) (Mollusca: Helicidae) under laboratory conditions. Anim. Biol. J. 4: 147–160.
Neubert E. 2014. Revision of Helix Linnaeus, 1758 in its east Mediterranean distribution area, with a note on Helix godetiana Kobelt, 1878 (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Helicidae. Contrib. Nat. Hist. 26: 1–200.
Neubert E., Korábek O. 2015. Comment on Psonis et al. (2015): ‘Evaluation of the taxonomy of Helix cincta (Muller, 1774) and Helix nucula (Mousson, 1854); insights using mitochondrial DNA sequence data’. J. Nat. Hist. 49: 2257–2263. https://doi.org/10.1080/00222933.2015.1021874
Neubert E., Zahair S. A., Waitzbauer W., Al Talafha H. 2015. Annotated checklist of the terrestrial gastropods of Jordan. Arch. Molluskenkd. 144: 169–238. https://doi.org/10.1127/arch.moll/1869-0963/144/169-238
Pallary P. 1909. Catalogue de la faune malacologique de l’Egypte. Memoires presentes a l’Institut Egyptien 6: 1–92.
Pallary P. 1921. Faune malacologique du Grand Atlas. J. Conchyliol. 66: 187–190.
Pallary P. 1924. Supplément à la faune malacologique terrestre et fluviale de l’Égypte. Mém. Inst. Égypt. 7: 23–24 & 46–49.
Prévot V., Backeljau T., Jordaens K. 2015. Morphometric evaluation of DNA based cryptic taxa in the terrestrial decollate snail genus Rumina. J. Mollus. Stud. 81: 223–232. https://doi.org/10.1093/mollus/eyu080
Reitano A., Liberto F., Giglio S., Grasso R., Spena M. T. 2012. Terrestrial molluscs from the R.N.I. “Grotta Conza” (Palermo, Sicily) (Gastropoda Architaenioglossa Pulmonata). Biodivers. J. 3: 555–570.
Rensch B. 1932. Über die Abhängigkeit der Größe, des relativen Gewichtes und der Oberflächenstruktur der Landschnecken von den Umweltsfaktoren. (Ökologische Molluskenstudien 1). Z. Morph. Ökol. Tiere 25: 757–807.
Scheil A. E., Cättner U., Köhler Heinz-R. 2012. Colour polymorphism and thermal capacities in Theba pisana (O. F. Müller 1774). J. Therm. Biol. 37: 462–467. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtherbio.2012.03.006
Schütt H. 2001. Die türkischen Landschnecken 1758–2000. Acta Biol. Benrodis, Suppl. 4: 1–548.
Singer B. S., Mienis H. K. 1993. Rumina decollata an interesting visitor to the coast of Israel. Levantina 76: 5–18.
Swart P. L., Barnes B. N., Myburgh A. C. 1976. Pests of table grapes in the Western Cape. Deciduous Fruit Grower 26: 169–195.
Tryon G. W. Jr. 1887. Manual of conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol. 3. Helicidae – Vol. I. Conchological Section. Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, pp. 14–15.
USDA 2008. New pest response guidelines. Temperate terrestrial gastropods. United States Department of Agriculture, Washington D.C.
Welter-Schultes F. W. 2012. European non-marine molluscs, a guide for species identification. Planet Poster Editions, Göttingen.
Yildirim M. Z., Gumus U. K. 2004. Edible snails (Terrestrial) of Turkey. Turk. J. Zool. 28: 329–335.

Folia Malacologica (2017) 25: 125-142
First published on-line: 2017-06-08 00:00:00
https://doi.org/10.12657/folmal.025.011
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